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Population 2016, n°1
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Population 2016, n°1

2016

N° ISBN 978-2-7332-10642

20,00 €

Seventieth Anniversary of Population
(François Héran presents and analyses an article by Alfred Sauvy published in 1946)

Articles

Renal Diseas es and Social Inequalities in Access to Transplantation in France
Christian Baudelot, Yvanie Caillé, Olivier Godechot, Sylvie Mercier 

Family Formation and Lab our Force Participation. Maternal Employment and Educational Differentials in Europe
Jonas Wood, David De Wachter, Tine Kil, Karel Neels

Comparison of Retrospective Fertility Data from Censuses in Belgium and Family Surveys in France
Sandra Brée, Thierry Eggerickx, Jean-Paul Sanderson, Rafael Costa

 Feas ibility and Representativeness of a Random Sample Mobile Phone Survey in Côte d’Ivoire
Joseph Larmarange, Ouattara Kassoum, Élise Kak ou, Yves Fradier, Lazare Sika , Christine Danel, DOD-CI ANRS 12 287 group

Sex miscoding in the Census and its Effects on the Enumeration of Same-Sex Couples
Maks Banens, Eric Le Penven

 Renal Diseas es and Social Inequalities in Access to Transplantation in France

Christian Baudelot, Yvanie Caillé, Olivier Godechot, Sylvie Mercier 
Renal diseases are invisible and silent up to an advanced stage. Renal transplant is today the most effective therapy at all ages of life in terms of survival and quality of life, and is also the least expensive for French health system. Yet, whatever their age or sex, patients with a lower level of education less frequently receive transplants. Various independent factors produce these social inequalities: the nature of renal pathologies, resulting partly from patients’ lifestyles; the degree of attention paid to initial symptoms and the existence of two types of replacement therapy (dialysis and transplant) practiced differently in the private and public sectors. Patients with the highest level of education are in a better position to negotiate the system than the others. The results
presented in this article are based on data from two national surveys of renal patients conducted in 2011 and 2012.

 Family Formation and Lab our Force Participation. Maternal Employment and Educational Differentials in Europe

Jonas Wood, David De Wachter, Tine Kil, Karel Neels
Despite the rise in maternal employment in Europe between 1970 and the 2000s, women’s labour market positions continue to depend much more strongly on family formation than those of men. The available literature on educational gradients in maternal employment is largely based on cross-sectional comparisons. This study is among the first to decompose educational differences in maternal employment into differences prior to motherhood and differential effects of childbearing on employment. Drawing on longitudinal microdata (Generations and Gender Survey) for France, the Netherlands, and Hungary, participation in the labour force is studied using mixed effects logit models. In addition we distinguish part-time and full-time work. In line with the available literature, clear positive educational gradients in maternal employment are found, largely reflecting positive educational differentials already existing before family formation. This finding is related to the fact that highly educated women typically aim to establish a career before starting a family, but also have better labour market opportunities in general. Temporary drops in labour force participation are larger after a first birth among highly educated women. Part-time working of mothers is less strongly determined by employment before the first birth, and its frequency increases with educational level.

 Comparison of Retrospective Fertility Data from Censuses in Belgium and Family Surveys in France

Sandra Brée, Thierry Eggerickx, Jean-Paul Sanderson, Rafael Costa
Fertility behaviour in France and Belgium in the first half of the twentieth century is still quite poorly understood, owing mainly to legislation that prohibits the use of individual data less than 100 years old, and to the paucity of cross-sectional aggregate data. This article tests whether it is possible to bridge that gap via a retrospective approach, using the questions about women’s reproductive life from family surveys conducted in France and population censuses in Belgium. The analyses show that the risks of bias related to recall errors, selection effects and non-response, inherent in these retrospective observations, are limited. The reconstituted birth histories of the various cohorts of women recorded at the time of the survey or census therefore offer considerable research potential, making it possible to calculate more detailed, more diversified indicators of the intensity and timing of fertility for cohorts of women born since the end of the nineteenth century. They also enable us to capture the spatial dimension of fertility, at the level of the regions in France, and of the arrondissements and even the municipalities in Belgium.

 Feas ibility and Representativeness of a Random Sample Mobile Phone Survey in Côte d’Ivoire

Joseph Larmarange, Ouattara Kassoum, Élise Kak ou, Yves Fradier, Lazare Sika , Christine Danel, DOD-CI ANRS 12 287 group
This short paper presents the results of an exploratory pilot survey on HIV-AIDS screening (DOD-CI) conducted in Côte d’Ivoire to test the feasibility and representativeness of a national general population survey based on a random sample of mobile phone numbers. The refusal rate was low, and below the levels habitually observed for similar surveys conducted in France. In terms of representativeness, the sample obtained was younger, more urban and more masculine than the population in general. Four HIV-AIDS screening indicators were compared with those obtained in the Demographic and Health survey (DHS) conducted in 2011-2012. Owing to differences in selection biases affecting the two surveys, the indicators were higher than those observed in the DHS 2011-2012.However, the differences observed by sex, age group, level of education and place of residence were similar. This
confirms the feasibility of applying such an approach for a national survey in Côte d’Ivoire, providing that several adjustments are made, such as including non-subscribers living in the same household as a mobile phone subscriber.

 Sex miscoding in the Census and its Effects on the Enumeration of Same-Sex Couples

Maks Banens, Eric Le Penven
The study of same-sex couples is a new field in demography. In France, as elsewhere, the census contains all the necessary data, but they are difficult to use because in many cases a miscoded sex of one of the partners results in a couple being identified as same-sex when this is not the case, or vice-versa. As heterosexual couples largely outnumber same-sex couples, "false" same-sex couples severely distort the observation of "real" ones. The French Family and Housing survey (Enquête Famille et Logements, INSEE, 2011), conducted in conjunction with the census, enables us to measure sex miscoding in the census. We observe that among the 139,700 couples identified as same-sex couples in the census, 58,900 turn out to be "false" due to a miscoded sex of one of the partners. Such errors concern 0.355% of heterosexual couples. The rate of error varies significantly by the respondent’s sex and the presence of children in the household. However, no significant difference is observed for other sociodemographic characteristics.