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Population 2017, n°1
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Population 2017, n°1

2017

N° ISBN 978-2-7332-1076-5

20,00 €

On the Sidelines of French Society. Homelessness among Migrants and their Descendants

Pascale Dietrich-Ragon

The Italian Army’s Losses in the First World War

Alessio Fornasin

When Girls Take the Lead: Adolescent Girls’ Migration in Mali

Marie Lesclingand, Véronique Hertrich

Periurbanization and the Transformation of the Urban Mortality Gradient in Switzerland

Mathias Lerch, Michel Oris and Philippe Wanner, for the Swiss National Cohort

Partnership Histories and the Transition to Motherhood in Later Reproductive Ages in Europe

Júlia Mikolai

Book reviews

History and Population

On the Sidelines of French Society. Homelessness among Migrants and their Descendants

Pascale Dietrich-Ragon
Although the percentage of foreigners among the homeless has risen sharply in the space of ten years, the specific characteristics of this population remain under-researched. This article analyses the social and housing trajectories of migrants and their descendants with no personal dwelling. How do they differ from their counterparts born in France? What specific position do immigrants hold in the temporary accommodation sector and what are the key differences within this group? The results of the French Homeless Survey (Enquête Sans-Domicile) conducted by INSEE and INED in 2012 show that migrants, descendants of migrants, and people from the “majority” population have distinct profiles, and that they do not have equal access to accommodation provided by assistance organizations. Owing to the presence of women and children among them, migrants are generally not left in the street, but they are often sent to emergency shelters where they are less likely to move on to permanent housing. Moreover, the unequal economic, cultural and social capital of the members of this group gives rise to differentials in access to accommodation and in their ability to exercise their rights.

The Italian Army’s Losses in the First World War

Alessio Fornasin
The figure most often used in the literature to quantify the Italian army’s losses in the First World War is that of the War Reparations Commission of 1921 that counts 650,000 deaths. This article aims to challenge this estimate, propose a new one; and provide information about the age structure and age at death of the Italian soldiers who died in the Great War. The source used in this study is the Albo d’oro (Roll of Honour) of fallen soldiers. I use both the summary tables at the end of each volume, as well as a sample of 11,010 military deaths (equal to around 2.1% of the total) taken from the same source. The analysis is performed with the support of descriptive statistics. We find first that the estimates of 650,000 military deaths established immediately after the end of the war are too high; it is more reasonable to conclude that the actual number of military deaths is about 560,000. Second, the Albo d’oro data show that mortality peaked in the last year of the war, contrary to the previous assertions that the peak occurred in 1917. Last, it appears that death from disease, which was higher in the Italian army than in those of the other superpowers, had an even greater impact than previously believed.

When Girls Take the Lead: Adolescent Girls’ Migration in Mali

Marie Lesclingand, Véronique Hertrich
In many West African societies, labour migration has become a part of life for teenage girls. A traditional practice for boys, it has more recently caught on among young women, and is becoming a driver of sociodemographic change in rural communities. This article analyses the similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ labour migration in a rural population of Mali. It draws upon longitudinal event history data to retrace the history of migration over a 50-year period (1960-2009) and to study its determinants, taking account of the socioeconomic context and of family rationales. Three main periods are defined, in terms of migration timing, family strategies and gender relations: a first period (1960-1979) marked by the rise of boys’ migration undertaken mainly to support the family; a second (1980-1989) marked by the rapid rise of adolescent girls’ mobility, and a third (1990-2009), marked by a weakening of the convergence between the sexes. Our analyses reveal the dynamics of the  phenomenon and the influence of girls’ migration behaviour on contemporary male migration in a context where male mobility no longer necessarily takes precedence within the family.


Periurbanization and the Transformation of the Urban Mortality Gradient in Switzerland

Mathias Lerch, Michel Oris and Philippe Wanner, for the Swiss National Cohort
While regional differences in life expectancy have flattened out in Switzerland, we investigate the effect of periurbanization on the geography of mortality. Using data from vital statistics and censuses, we find an increasing intra-urban differentiation of mortality since 1980, especially in the largest and most recently sprawling cities. A non-linear gradient, in which life expectancy is lower in city centres and rural areas than in urban agglomeration belts, has emerged. Age- and cause-specific mortality profiles suggest that lifestyles specific to the population of the city centres and related to the spatial concentration of disadvantaged groups play a dominant role in shaping this pattern. Considering mortality at ages 20-64, a multilevel model applied to census-linked mortality data shows how the mortality advantage observed in periurban areas can be explained by a concentration of highly educated individuals and of families. Excess mortality at ages 20-64 in city centres, by contrast, arises from more deprived material and social living environments. However, these socioeconomic consequences of periurbanization fail to account for the urban mortality gradient observed among older people.

Partnership Histories and the Transition to Motherhood in Later Reproductive Ages in Europe

Júlia Mikolai
Changing partnership experiences might accentuate women’s fertility postponement and increase the risk of remaining involuntarily childless. Previous research typically focused on current partnership status and a single country when studying the link between partnerships and first birth. We examine how current partnership status and partnership histories of women who were still childless at ages 30 or 35 are linked to later transition to motherhood in 12 European countries. Women born between 1953 and 1962 are analysed using data from the Harmonized Histories database. In western and northern European countries, women who married their cohabiting partner by age 30 have the highest probability of achieving a first birth between age 30 and 40, followed by directly married women. We find the opposite in southern European and post-socialist countries. Additionally, cohabiting women generally have smaller first birth probabilities than directly married women. In western and northern Europe, never-partnered women are the least likely to have a child by age 40, whereas in the remaining countries, it is women who are single following union dissolution who have the lowest first birth probabilities.