The French Institute for Demographic Studies or INED, is a public research institute specialized in population studies that works in partnership with the academic and research communities at national and international levels.
INED was founded in 1945, and in 1986 it acquired the status of an Etablissement Public à Caractère Scientifique et Technologique (EPST), meaning that it is under joint administrative supervision of the ministries of research and social affairs. The Institute’s missions are to study the populations of France and other countries, to ensure wide dissemination of the knowledge thereby acquired, and to provide training in research through research. INED’s approach to demography is resolutely open and interdisciplinary, implicating a wide range of disciplines including economics, history, geography, sociology, anthropology, biology and epidemiology. With its research units, the Institute promotes communication and exchange within the scientific community and between researchers and the general public while conducting numerous European and international research projects.
In 1986, INED became one of France’s eight public scientific and technical institutions (EPST), alongside CNRS, INSERM, INRA and the IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement). The Institute’s overall missions are to study all aspects of population, to provide training in and through research, to keep the government, public authorities and general public informed about demographic questions and to disseminate French demographic research internationally.
Nearly 250 people, including 50 tenured, or permanent, researchers and more than 40 doctoral students, work at INED; there are also 40 associate researchers. The Institute has 10 research units, a mixed research unit and 5 research support services, including the Statistical Methods and Surveys departments
INED has several governing bodies: the Scientific Council, the Board of Administration, the Evaluation Committee and the Ethics Committee
With its strong interdisciplinarity and its status as a reference in demography, INED is an active contributor to the development of French research.
The Institute is one of the driving forces of major current research projects, such as the Campus Condorcet, which is transforming the landscape of the humanities and social sciences in the Paris region. And with its leading role in the iPOPs research programme (Individuals, Population, Societies), awarded the status of Laboratory of Excellence (Labex) by the state, the Institute has been able to put population questions at the centre of France’s “Investments for the Future” national research funding programme.
As a member of the new scientific cooperation networks, INED is consolidating its long-standing ties iwith universities, grandes écoles and other research institutes.
One distinguishing characteristic of INED is its ability to conduct research studies that cover not just France but a large part of the world. The international scope of the Institute may be seen in its many partnerships with institutions abroad and its active role in the world scientific community.
INED researchers have a long tradition of collaboration with their counterparts throughout the world. To facilitate scientific cooperation, the Institute has established numerous partnerships and is involved in all the international population research networks; it also supports the mobility of its doctoral students and researchers.
INED is an actor in European research policy. The Institute is active in many projects funded by the European Union and in the main initiatives that unite the community of European demographers.
As one of the founding institutions, INED is actively involved in the development of Campus Condorcet Paris-Aubervilliers, the future human and social science research hub now under construction at the gates of the French capital.
Because INED is a public organization, its staff and permanent researchers are civil servants hired on the basis of competitive examinations that range from vocational certificate to doctoral level.
It also hires on a task- or limited-term contract-basis in extremely diverse areas.
INED recruits researchers, engineers and technicians by way of official competitive examinations. On this page you can find the latest examination announcements, descriptions of currently available positions and information on submitting an application.
Use this section to submit a speculative application for a job or internship at INED.
Research at INED is organized around multidisciplinary and topic-focused teams made up of its own permanent researchers and associated researchers. Institute research units host doctoral students and post-docs for training in and through research.
Over 70 multi-annual projects are under way. For some, INED designs and carries out its own surveys—one of its specificities. Collected data are then made available to the scientific community.
INED is placing increasing emphasis on training in research through the practice of research. Every year the Institute hosts PhD students from France and abroad selected on an application basis. Students work under researcher supervision and depending on their thesis topic, they join one or two research teams. They are benefiting from INED work resources and its stimulating environment.
INED also offers one- or two-year post-doctoral contracts to young French or foreign researchers. Recipients are selected on the basis of their competence, the quality and originality of their research project, and its relevance to INED research areas.
INED designs and carries out its own surveys. The data thus collected are accessible to the entire scientific community.
The Institute has its own survey office, which defines sampling methods, assists in designing questionnaires and drawing up data collection protocols, and adjusts statistical samples. It is also in charge of making anonymized data available to others. INED’s survey catalogue and a description of the projects in progress may be consulted on line.
INED makes a vast body of resources on population available to website users, including the INED library, open to all and accessible on line; and presentations of statistical analysis and survey methods.
Research relies on a wide range of statistical analysis methods to process survey data and to describe and model demographic events and phenomena on the basis of that data. Alongside classic methods such as data analysis and logistic regression, several other methods have come to the fore in the last 30 years.
Seminars on research methodology and practices in France and abroad, articles on method use, and extensive reference lists are just some of the statistics-related resources available
Each survey is specific but all surveys include a number of requisite steps and phases. Important factors to be taken into account from the outset include survey protocol, sampling frame, budget, regulations, questionnaire testing, data file compilation, and quality assessment. INED’s Surveys Department handles most of the data collection procedures involved in INED research projects. It may assist with data production throughout the process or provide help on particular survey phases only.
Every INED survey is designed to investigate a particular research question or set of questions. INED surveys are “custom-made” and in many cases highly innovative. Methodological choices are therefore a key phase of the research. The time required to prepare the survey, design questions, conduct and assess pilot surveys and, later, to evaluate the quality of the data collected must not be underestimated.
INED Publications has been in existence since the Institute’s founding in 1945, consistent with one of its fundamental missions: to disseminate scientific knowledge. INED Publications reflects and enacts the Institute’s commitment to multi-disciplinarity in demographic research by diffusing and promoting scientific production and survey results and findings to a diverse audience, thereby making solid scientific expertise and knowledge available for public debate on major social issues. Recently, the Open Archive has widened diffusion of free-access published materials while ensuring the continued preservation of INED researchers’ studies.
A tour of the globe to explore its population.
Use this section to:
- compare demographic indicators for different countries;
- help prepare for a class or an oral presentation;
- find simple answers to your questions;
- reflect on complex issues;
- learn the basics of demography;
- extend your knowledge through play...
All about population in Figures: tables on the French and world population and access to several online databases.
The latest data on the population of metropolitan France
(structure and trends) are given in a series of tables. They are
based on data published regularly by INSEE and on INED estimates
and projections. More complete datasets dating back to earlier
years can also be downloaded in CSV format.
The tables for “All of France” bring together data for metropolitan France and the four overseas départements (DOMs). These figures do not include Mayotte, which became the fifth DOM on 31 March 2011, or the overseas territories and collectivities (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Saint Barthélémy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna). INSEE includes the DOMs in its annual demographic overview and in most of the tables in its detailed annual study of the demographic situation in France.
The population of France by sex and age is estimated by INSEE
each year. A provisional estimate is first issued and final figures
are published at a later date.
Censuses are conducted in certain years to enumerate the
population. The population estimates are adjusted on the basis of
census data, for the whole of France and for the different
départements and regions.
The population changes from one year to the next. Natural change
is the difference between births and deaths, and can be determined
precisely from vital records. Net migration is the difference
between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. It is
estimated on the basis of available statistics.
Adjustments are sometimes made to establish overall consistency
between census population figures and inter-census estimates of
To estimate its relative scale, population change is often
expressed in relation to the mean population of a given year. Rates
of birth, death, natural increase and total variation are obtained
in this way.
Registered births are recorded in statistical bulletins which
provide a rich source of information. Births are counted on the
basis of many different characteristics: parents’ marital status
and nationality, sex of the child, twin births, etc.
Information on the mother’s age is used to calculate annual
fertility indicators, such as the total fertility rate expressed as
a total number of children per woman.
Completed cohort fertility is also calculated every year. For
example, women born in 1970 were 34 years old in 2004. We know how
many children they have had before age 34 and we can estimate how
many children they will have during their reproductive
Fertility can be controlled by means of contraception and
induced abortion. Information on contraceptive practice in France
is obtained through surveys conducted regularly by INED since 1978
among the entire female population. The number of induced abortions
is estimated on the basis of abortion notifications and hospital
statistics. INED is responsible for publication of abortion
Marriage registers provide a rich source of information on
marriage practices: number of marriages, previous marital status
and nationality of spouses, etc.
Statistics on divorces and civil unions (PACS) are supplied by
the Ministry of Justice.
The first task in a population census is to enumerate dwellings.
Persons living in the same dwelling form a household, so each
household comprises all the persons living in a single
According to the census definitions, a household may comprise
one or more families. A family is a group of persons comprising a
couple with no children, a couple with children, or one adult and
Death registers provide a means to measure variations in
mortality. Deaths by sex and age are used to construct life tables
which give life expectancy at birth, i.e. the number of years a
newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at
the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
The mortality of children under the age of one year is also
When a person dies, a doctor records the cause of death on a
death certificate which is sent to INSERM where all causes of death
On this page INED presents an overview of the annual number of entries of foreign citizens who immigrate legally and permanently to France. Our calculations are based on data from the central database of residence permits (AGDREF) of the Ministry of the Interior. These immigration flow statistics consider only foreign nationals who are required to obtain a residence permit, and thus exclude citizens of the European Union. In line with international recommendations, only permits valid for more than one year are taken into account.
Population censuses provide an opportunity to count the number
of inhabitants who were born outside France. Among foreign-born
inhabitants, a distinction is generally made between persons born
with French nationality and immigrants, who are born with a
Inhabitants are distinguished by their nationality, i.e. French
or foreign and, among French citizens, those who were born French
and those who have been naturalized. The census provides
information on current nationality and nationality at birth.
Foreigners and immigrants form two different categories.
Immigrants "born abroad as a foreign national" may still be
foreigners at the time of the census or may have become French.
Foreigners, for their part, may have been born abroad (in which
case they are immigrants) or in France (in which case they are not
This section provides data tables on populations, births and
deaths in Europe and in developed countries. It also includes
indicators of population change (birth and death rates) and the two
main demographic indicators: the total fertility rate and life
expectancy at birth.
Here you can access databases constructed by INED researchers on developed countries and mortality in France, the Life table database developed by the Max Planck Institute, the University of California at Berkeley and INED, and the database of the Generations and Gender European survey programme (GGP).
An atlas, interactive maps, an animated film on migrations and annotated graphs that will enable you to visualize and understand world demographic trends and the issues they involve.
With the population simulator and INED’s interactive games and quizzes, mastering the main concepts of demography, from projections to fertility factors, becomes (almost) child’s play.
So you think you know everything about population? Check how well you do on our quizzes.Update: January 2019, based on United Nations World Population Prospects
Demographic fact sheets offer a brief, clear overview of current knowledge about populations.
These materials—teaching kits, analytical notes, and interviews—summarize specific scientific questions and decipher the issues related to population questions. All of them may be used as tools for introducing students to demographic phenomena and demographic change in France and throughout the world.
In France, the term applies to the increase in the birth rate
after 1945 and up to the mid-70’s.