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Differences in COVID‑19 Mortality:Implications of Imperfect and Diverse Data Collection Systems
Jenny Garcia, Catalina Torres , Magali Barbieri ,Carlo Giovanni Camarda, Emmanuelle Cambois, Arianna Caporali, France Meslé , Svitlana Poniakina,Jean-Marie Robine

The Demographic Impacts of the Sieges of Paris,1870–1871
Denis Cogneau and Lionel Kesztenbaum

Differences in COVID‑19 Mortality:Implications of Imperfect and Diverse Data Collection Systems
Jenny Garcia, Catalina Torres , Magali Barbieri ,Carlo Giovanni Camarda, Emmanuelle Cambois, Arianna Caporali, France Meslé , Svitlana Poniakina,Jean-Marie Robine

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease identified in late 2019 rapidly became a global pandemic, and the associated death count a critical issue. International comparison of death statistics allows us to study the dynamics of the pandemic and the effect of health policies. Given that each country has set up its own counting system and that these systems have evolved over the months, are the differences in mortality observed in time and space really comparable and attributable to epidemiological variations? Using information on COVID‑19 deaths for about 15  European countries, the United States, and South Korea, the authors provide valuable documentation to better understand and interpret the observed differences.

The Demographic Impacts of the Sieges of Paris,1870–1871
Denis Cogneau et Lionel Kesztenbaum

Paris came under siege twice between September 1870 and May 1871, first by the Prussian army and then by the Versailles government’s assault on the Commune. The first resulted in a severe famine; the second in a bloodbath. We investigate the impact of this crisis on child mortality, adult height, and adult mortality, using original vital records and military register data from one of the city’s lowest-income areas. Deaths more than doubled at all ages during this period, and under-5 mortality rates increased by 30% for children born in 1869 and 1870. Those conceived and gestated during the crisis ended up significantly shorter and faced 40% higher adult mortality than unaffected cohorts born afterwards, but children aged 2–5 later recovered in height as living conditions quickly improved. A nutritional shock’s translation into short-term variations in stature and into lifetime survival thus seems to depend not only on the shock’s duration but also on preceding and subsequent living conditions, which themselves interact with selection effects and critical age windows for physiological growth