Population 2004 n° 2
- Demographic and Social Characteristics of Murderers and their Victims: A Survey on a Département of the Paris Region in the 1990s - Laurent Mucchielli
- Migrants and AIDS: Risk Management versus Social Control. An Example from the Senegal River Valley - Richard Lalou, Victor Piché
- Can the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 Explain the Baby Boom of 1920 in Neutral Norway? - Svenn-Erik Mamelund
The Demographic Situation of Europe and the Developed Countries Overseas: An Annual Report
- Recent Demographic Trends in the Developed Countries - Sardon Jean-Paul
- The European Union at the Time of Enlargement - Monnier Alain
Demographic and Social Characteristics of Murderers and their Victims: A Survey on a Département of the Paris Region in the 1990s
Based on about one hundred criminal cases which were tried by a Court of Appeal in the southwest of the Paris region over ten years (1987-1996), this article presents the demographic and social characteristics of 122 murderers and their victims. It brings out the very high proportion of individuals from the working classes or from the poorest strata of the population among the population of murderers as well as of victims, and the weight of economic inactivity and unemployment. The importance of family disruption (desertion, various types of foster care) and still more importantly, of family conflicts, is emphasized. On an empirical level, these findings are compared with those of studies conducted in other countries, particularly the abundant quantitative literature from North America. On a theoretical level, this article takes its place among discussions initiated by American authors who have worked on the notions of disorganization and social disintegration, and by French authors who have worked on the notions of disaffiliation, disqualification and dis-insertion, and who suggest that researchers move beyond the mere social and family characteristics of the individuals at the time of the crime and take into account their life histories and particularly the family and school elements that left their marks on their entire life itinerary.
Migrants and AIDS: Risk Management versus Social Control. An Example from the Senegal River Valley
Lalou R., Piché V.
Even though numerous previous studies have demonstrated the existence of a relationship between mobility and AIDS, the complex mechanisms subjacent to this relationship still remain relatively unknown. The study presented here is based on a survey carried out in 2000 in the Senegal River valley. It specifically examines the link between migration and risky sexual behaviour in the return zone (risk of spread) by using a conceptual framework which takes into consideration (1) various types of mobility, (2) different social contexts, and (3) the non-migrants. The macro-social level is represented here by the choice of two zones in the Senegal River valley that stand in sharp contrast from the point of view of mobility and socio-economic context. Generally, the analyses show that the net effect of the migratory experience is significant in some social contexts and in relation to the social position of migrants in the return area. International migrants avoid the social risk of stigmatization by remaining faithful to their partners, while internal migrants reduce the risk of infection through frequent use of the condom. The inhibitory influence of migration on risky sexual practices in the return zone could explain the favourable situation of Senegal where the AIDS epidemic is moderate and relatively stable compared to most other countries in the region. Information and education programmes should take the social context into account by promoting responsible behaviour among individuals and community level responses aimed at protection based on solidarity.
Can the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 Explain the Baby Boom of 1920 in Neutral Norway?
Recent Demographic Trends in the Developed Countries
The European Union at the Time of Enlargement
Among the new members, the eight countries of central Europe are characterized by a negative or at most very low population growth, the result of fertility that is lower than in the countries of the Europe of Fifteen and of mortality that is higher. Because of past trends, demographic ageing is slightly less marked in these countries than in the Fifteen.
The European Union of Twenty-Five represents around 7.5% of the world population (but 16% of the over-60s) and slightly more than 60% of the population of continental Europe. It exhibits a large differential in population growth relative to the United States (3.2 per 1,000 and 9.1 per 1,000, respectively).