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Population 2015, n°3
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Population 2015, n°3

2015

Papier

n° ISBN 978-2-7332-10567

20,00 €

The Demographic Situation in France

The Demographic Situation in France: Recent Developments and Trends over the Last 70 Years
Magali Mazuy, Magali Barbieri, Didier Breton, Hippolyte d’Albis

Characteristics of Migration Flows to France Based on Residence Permit Data (1998-2013)
Hippolyte d’Albis, Ekrame Boubtane

Articles

The Vocabulary of Demography, from its Origins to the Present Day: A Digital Exploration
François Héran

 Providing Access to Quantitative Surveys for Social Research: The Example of INED
Arianna Caporali, Amandine Morisset, Stéphane Legleye

Ethnic Origin or Residential Location: Educational and Labour Market Attainment of Young People of Immigrant Background in France
Romain Aeberhardt, Roland Rathelot, Mirna Safi 

Does the Household-Based Census Capture the Diversity of Family Configurations?
Loïc Trabut, Éva Lelièvre, Estelle Bailly and the LiLi team

 
Book Reviews

Migrations, Discrimination, Integration
Topic coordinator: Patrick Simon, INED “International migrations and minorities” research unit
Books reviewed by: M. Beaujeu, S. Condon, E. Druez, T. Eremenko, A. Grysole, L. Kesztenbaum, P. Simon

The Demographic Situation in France: Recent Developments and Trends over the Last 70 Years
Magali Mazuy, Magali Barbieri, Didier Breton, Hippolyte d’Albis

On 1 January 2015, the population of France was 66.3 million (of which 64.2 million in metropolitan France), an increase of 0.45% with respect to the previous year. Fertility increased slightly, to 2.0 children per woman. Women had children at a mean age of 30.2 years,  and men at 33.1 years. Nearly six in ten children were born outside marriage. Net migration remained quite stable. Among residence permits issued to migrants in 2013, half were granted for family reasons, slightly less than a quarter for educational purposes, 10% for humanitarian reasons, and 7% for work-related reasons. The number of marriages (among opposite-sex couples) continued to decrease slightly. Marriage was opened to same-sex couples on 17 May 2013. Between that date and the end of 2014, 17,000 same-sex  marriages were registered. The seasonality of marriages remained fairly stable, while the annual peak in civil partnerships (PACS) previously observed in the second quarter shifted to the end of the year. Mean age at marriage continued to increase, reaching 34.6 years for women and 37.2 years for men in 2013. According to provisional estimates, the number of deaths in 2014 totalled 559,300. Women’s life expectancy was 84.7 years and that of men was 79.2 years, a gap of 5.5 years that has been narrowing over time.

Characteristics of Migration Flows to France Based on Residence Permit Data (1998-2013)
Hippolyte d’Albis, Ekrame Boubtane

In this article, administrative data on residence permits are analysed to calculate flows of legal permanent migration to France from third countries. The authors describe and discuss the AGDREF database, a national database of foreign nationals residing in France, as well as the methodological assumptions underpinning their calculations. Annual migration inflows and outflows are calculated for the period 1998-2013 on the basis of information on residence permits with a validity of at least one year extracted annually from the  AGDREF database. The study breaks down the inflows by migrants’ age, gender and nationality, and by residence permit duration and reason for admission. Inflows peaked in 2003-2005 and have fallen slightly since. A total of 192,419 legal migrants entered France in  2013. The majority of legal permanent immigrants are young adults from African countries who come to France for family reasons or to pursupursue their education. Over the period 1998-2013, estimated outflows were consistently smaller than inflows.

The Vocabulary of Demography, from its Origins to the Present Day: A Digital Exploration
François Héran

Launched at the end of 2010, Ngram Viewer can be used to detect trends in word usage in the millions of documents digitized by Google Books, covering a period from the sixteenth century up to the present day (eighteenth century for the French corpus). This article  exploits the capabilities of this new application to examine the changing visibility of demographic vocabulary in written culture. It begins by looking at how data are selected and organized in Ngram Viewer, and shows that the counting of word sequences (or ngrams)without reference to context – a shortcoming pointed up by critics – is not an insurmountable problem. It then focuses on the main themes of demography, showing that the decline in demographic terminology since the 1990s is not an artefact. This decline is most visible for the demographic concepts linked to the marriage model, and for technical terms now confined to scientific journals (not covered by Ngram Viewer). An upward trend is observed, on the other hand, for terms linked to the social questions attracting a new generation of researchers, such as infecundity, perinatal mortality, sexual orientation, new transitions to adulthood, causes of death, health inequalities, gender relations, integration and discrimination, violence, systems of values. This suggests that demography must broaden its horizons if it wishes to maintain its former visibility and restore the link between science and society that has become so fragile today.

  • Providing Access to Quantitative Surveys for Social Research: The Example of INED

Arianna Caporali, Amandine Morisset, Stéphane Legleye

Sharing data and providing access to surveys are paramount to social research. Yet there is little knowledge of the archiving activities involved. This article focuses on quantitative survey data. It reviews the development of social science survey data archives from their creation in the 1950s and the emergence of international standards. France was a late starter in this domain. It then demonstrates the importance of archives for providing access to survey data via the example of the Surveys Department of the French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED), a co-founder of the Réseau Quetelet, which today centralizes access to most
social science surveys in France. The work done to make survey data and metadata available for re-use is discussed, highlighting the importance of collaboration with data producers in a context of a strengthening trend towards open data.

  • Ethnic Origin or Residential Location: Educational and Labour Market Attainment of Young People of Immigrant Background in France

Romain Aeberhardt, Roland Rathelot, Mirna Safi 

The poor educational outcomes and labour market difficulties of ethnic minorities are often attributed to their residential location and their segregation in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In this article, we seek to determine whether the educational and employment trajectories of young people with at least one parent born in North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa or in the "Near and Middle East" are equivalent to those of young people whose parents were both born in France, holding sociodemographic characteristics and place of residence constant. To this end, we exploit fine-scale geolocation data at the level of the infra-communal
census district (IRIS) provided by the 1998 and 2004 Génération surveys. The specifications used in the regression models enable us to measure the effect of the origin variable after controlling for a wide range of individual variables and for the geographic fixed effect at the IRIS level (conditional logit). Our results highlight the large differences between the children of African immigrants and the children of French-born parents. These differences persist even after controlling for geographic effects.

  • Does the Household-Based Census Capture the Diversity of Family Configurations?

Loïc Trabut, Éva Lelièvre, Estelle Bailly and the LiLi team

This article examines the family types identified by the French population census and by the Famille et logements (family and housing) survey, drawing on and comparing all the information about family relations yielded by these two sources. Although the census in its current form (a rolling series of annual surveys) meets its remit of counting the number of persons living in France, taking the household as its observation unit, it is less good at describing families, especially when a housing unit is shared by several families, several generations, non-relatives and/or individuals living alternately in more than one household. This comparison sheds
light on the causes of the divergences between the two sources. They stem from the differing objectives of the two data collection exercises, from the census data coding principles, which are based on the concept of the nuclear family, and from inaccurate declarations, each cause requiring its own solution. Despite the exhaustive nature of the census count, the international recommendations it follows do not allow marginal and/or emerging family forms to be adequately described, justifying the resumption of the Famille surveys coupled with the census.