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Population 2017, n°3
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Population 2017, n°3

2017, 185 pages

20,00 €

 Sectors of Activity and Occupations of Gay and Lesbian Couples: A Smaller Gender Divide

Wilfried Rault

At the Intersection of Gender and National Origin: The Career Trajectories of Selected Immigrants in Quebec

Julie Lacroix, Alain Gagnon, Vincent Lortie

Biological Effects of First Birth Postponement and Assisted Reproductive Technology on Completed Fertility

Henri Leridon

The Onset of Fertility Transition in Central Asia

Thomas Spoorenberg

Spatial Patterns and Determinants of Fertility in India

Abhishek Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar, Praveen Kumar Pathak, Rajesh Kumar Chauhan, Adrita Banerjee

Book reviews

 Sectors of Activity and Occupations of Gay and Lesbian Couples: A Smaller Gender Divide

Wilfried Rault
Despite an increase in research on homosexuality in recent decades, it is still difficult to socially characterize gay and lesbian populations using general population surveys. It is rarely possible to obtain a sample of sufficient size that is representative of the general population, along with the appropriate indicators of homosexuality and social status that are required for such an analysis. This article proposes a novel approach based on data from the Family and Housing survey carried out by INSEE in 2011. For the first time in France, this survey enabled us to implement this approach by studying individuals who report being “in a union”. Our analysis highlights the high levels of education among women and men in same-sex unions, as well as the specific features of their occupational profiles. Gays and lesbians are more present in the higher occupational categories, are over-represented in sectors characterized by equal numbers of men and women and are less present in highly gender-segregated categories that are numerically dominated by their own sex. In this regard,
individuals in same-sex unions are less influenced by gender norms.

 At the Intersection of Gender and National Origin: The Career Trajectories of Selected Immigrants in Quebec

Julie Lacroix, Alain Gagnon, Vincent Lortie
Differences between immigrants and natives in access to employment are closely linked to national origin and gender. While the disadvantage of non-Western immigrant men is often explained in terms of discrimination and the transferability of human capital, that of immigrant women is typically explained in cultural terms, on the assumption that women’s labour market participation reflects gender roles in their region of origin. Using survey data on selected workers in Quebec, we examine the relationship between national origin and gender in immigrants’ speed of access to employment. The sample consists exclusively of principal applicants from the category of skilled workers in Quebec. Factors linked to “cultural barriers”, which are thought to restrict women’s access to employment, are thus neutralized in the analysis of the different groups, which all consist of individuals selected to enter the labour market. Cox models with interactions show that the effect of immigrants’ gender is combined with that of their national origin, and reveal gender differences in access to a first job which are principally modulated by language skills. In contrast, individuals’ access to a job corresponding to their level of education differs by national origin and is independent of gender.

Biological Effects of First Birth Postponement and Assisted Reproductive Technology on Completed Fertility

Henri Leridon
Fertility trends in European countries since the 1960s have been characterized by a notable decline in the completed fertility of successive cohorts (with an even greater decrease in the total fertility rate) and a rapid rise in age at first birth, of around 3-4 years over three decades. At the same time, recourse to assisted reproductive technology (ART) has increased substantially. One might thus assume that this is indicative of growing difficulties in conceiving, which could – at least in part – result from couples’ desire to postpone family formation. To evaluate the purely biological impact of birth postponement, and the potential catch-up made possible by ART, we used a microsimulation model that takes a large number of both biological and behavioural parameters into account. Our simulations show that the biological effect on completed fertility of the 3-4 year postponement of the first birth is quite limited, at between 0.1 and 0.2 children. Recourse to ART makes up for only a small part of this reduction, 10% at most.

The Onset of Fertility Transition in Central Asia

Thomas Spoorenberg
This article investigates the implications for the onset of fertility transition of the establishment of socialism in the late 1920s in Central Asia. The fertility levels and trends in the five Central Asian Soviet republics are reconstructed using as many sources and methods as possible. The rapid change and progress that unfolded from the 1930s in the region were followed by an impressive rise in fertility. Interestingly, the fertility increase was circumscribed to women of the indigenous ethnic groups, whereas the fertility of women of European origin remained stable. The case of the Soviet republics of Central Asia illustrates that development may remove a series of biological and behavioural checks upon women’s reproduction, thereby increasing fertility. The study shows the need to reconstruct long-term demographic trends in developing countries in order to revisit their demographic transition and increase our understanding of the global process of the fertility transition.

Spatial Patterns and Determinants of Fertility in India

Abhishek Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar, Praveen Kumar Pathak, Rajesh Kumar Chauhan, Adrita Banerjee
This article examines the spatial patterns of fertility in India and its determinants using data from the 2011 Indian Census and round 3 of the District Level Household Survey conducted in India in 2007-08. We estimated all the independent variables and the dependent variable for each of the 640 districts of India as defined for the 2011 Indian Census. Moran’s I, univariate and bivariate LISA, ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares were used to analyse the data, and spatial error and two-stage spatial regression models were applied to account for the effects of spatial clustering. The four statistical models reveal different relationships between childlessness and fertility across districts and regions. A statistical association between son preference and fertility is also observed. Our findings demonstrate the importance of using spatial econometric models to analyse the determinants of fertility at district or lower levels.