Intended and realized fertility: France and Italy compared
Higher fertility in France than Italy
Within Europe, France and Italy stand virtually opposed in terms of fertility: women in France have 2 children on average, as against 1.4 in Italy. The difference is explained in part by the fact that women in Italy have their first child at a later age. By age 25, 42% of women in France born between 1960 and 1969 have already had their first child, as against 35% in Italy.
Desire to have at least two children
Intended fertility in the two countries is different. In France, 43% of couples of childbearing age desire to have two children and 41% want three or more, whereas in Italy the predominant desire is for two children (60%). But despite this difference, the symbolic reference of a family with at least two children persists in both countries; few women desire no children or only one child, including in Italy where increasing numbers of women are having only one child in their childbearing years.
Fertility intentions less frequently realized in Italy
For a recent survey of the two countries (Generations and Gender Survey), the same persons were questioned twice. The first time, they were asked if they intended to have a child "in the next three years." Respondents’ intentions were then compared with their answers the second time, when they were asked whether they had actually had a child in the following three years (Figure).
In general, "negative" fertility intentions are strongly predictive of behaviour: only 6% of persons in France stating they did not want children (response "No") had had a child and only 2% in Italy. Conversely, "positive" intentions tend to overestimate behaviour: only two-thirds of respondents who firmly intended to have a child (response "Yes") actually did.
But above and beyond these resemblances between countries, one
specificity can be identified. The proportion of couples who did
have a child is systematically higher in France, regardless of
expressed intention. In particular, 32% of people in France who
were uncertain (response "No, probably not") did have a child, as
against 9% in Italy. Uncertain respondents’ attitude toward the
future seems more flexible in France than in Italy, and this may be
due to a contextual difference: family policy is more developed in
France, namely when it comes to helping couples fit together work
and family life.