Selective adult migration and urban-rural mortality differentials in Burkina Faso
Presented by : Bruno Lankoande (Univ. Catholique Louvain-la-Neuve) Discussant : Gilles Pison (Muséum national d’histoire naturelle et Ined)
Bruno Lankoande Yempabou and Ali Sié are the winners of the 2017 Young Author’s Prize for their article : Selective adult migration and urban-rural mortality differentials in Burkina Faso
Taking the example of Burkina Faso, where massive rural exodus continues to drive the urbanization process, this study tests the net effects of migration on urban-rural mortality differentials among adults aged 15-74. It is based on information collected at two demographic surveillance sites, one in a rural area (Nouna) and one in the city (Ouagadougou). The longitudinal data cover a recent period (2009-2013) and are analysed using a semi-parametric Cox model. In a rural environment with poor health conditions, it is the healthy individuals who migrate to the city, thereby strengthening the urban health advantage over the short term. While rural-urban migrants are positively selected in terms of health, they tend to lose their advantage over time as they adapt to life in the city. This deterioration after several years of urban residence is probably holding back the mortality transition at national level, given that these migrants were in better health in their environment of origin. For return migrants (rural-urban-rural), the absence of a negative selection effect in Burkina Faso again reflects the complex interplay between migration and health. Beyond compositional and contextual effects, the positive selection of rural-urban migrants is an aggravating factor in the health disadvantage of rural areas.
Bruno Yempabou Lankoande has been a PhD student at the Centre for Demographic Research of the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) since October 2014. Focusing on Burkina Faso, his thesis provides a methodological contribution to the study of urban-rural adult mortality differentials in sub-Saharan Africa. Using cause-of-death analysis, he also aims to shed light on the mechanisms that underpin these inequalities, placing emphasis on the health selection effects of migration. In addition, Bruno Lankoande has contributed to research on urban health inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa with the research team of the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance system (Ouaga HDSS) of the Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP), where he worked as a research assistant from 2010 to 2014.
Ali Sié, MD, PhD is a physician trained in clinical epidemiology and currently a team leader in "disease control" at the Nouna Health Research Centre (CRSN) in Burkina Faso, which main objective is to provide evidence for the improvement of health programs and interventions in Burkina Faso and beyond.
His main area of research is clinical epidemiology of infectious diseases, health systems research and recently he has a growing interest in the environment and health.
He leads the Nouna Demographic and Health Surveillance System (SSDS) set up since 1992 and regularly follow-up about 106,000 inhabitants. This SSDS is a member of the INDEPTH network http://www.indepth-network.org Combining scientific competence and good leadership, he has participated in numerous epidemiological studies and health systems research since joining the CRSN in 2004. He has contributed to characterize the CRSN as a suitable clinical research platform for drug and vaccine trials as well as for epidemiological studies.
He also has good experience in consulting, teaching and supervising Master and PhD students as well as working with multidisciplinary and international teams from different institutes / universities in Africa, Asia, Europe and America.