As generations of workers in France continue to retire with life expectancies that are highly superior to those of preceding generations, the numerical balance between the economically active and inactive subsets of the French population is projected to change. For 100 people age 20-64, the number of people over 65 will rise from 38 in 2023 to 50 in 2040. This numerical change will give increasing visibility to differences in people’s situations. What are the characteristics, aspirations, and life perspectives of current and future generations of retirees? A concomitant question is how the living conditions of currently aging generations will evolve, and what their healthy life expectancy will be when they reach retirement age. Last comes the question of career inequalities: how can France’s retirement system be adapted to cover all occupational, family, and health situations and trajectories in such a way as to ensure that it is both acceptable and sustainable?

INED has compiled a set of resources on retirement and retirement system issues in France. To learn more, click on the arrows below. 


Age pyramyd, by Emmanuelle Cambois, 2022

Social inequalities in the chance of ageing in good health,by Emmanuelle Cambois,  2022

Career inequalities:Women and men facing occupational mobility, by Delphine Remillon,  2020



Population Ageing in High-Longevity Countries: Demographic Dynamics and Socio-economic Challenges Part 4 p274: Ageing, pension systems, and transfers, Population , 2021

Après plusieurs décennies de forte progression, le taux d’emploi des femmes commence à stagner en France, Henri Martin, Population & Societies 606, December 2022

Le sentiment d’isolement et la baisse du moral des retraités pendant la crise sanitaire, Laurent Nowik, Raphaël Dhuot, Population & Societies 600, May 2022

Horaires atypiques de travail : les femmes peu qualifiées de plus en plus exposées, Anne Lambert, Laetitia Langlois, Population & Societies 599, April 2022

Retraites : retour sur trente ans de débats et de réformes, Didier Blanchet, Population & Societies 574, February 2020

When in life is income higher than consumption? Changes in France over 30 years, Population & Societies 529, January 2016

Compte-rendu de : Gianni Betti, Francesca Bettio, Thomas Georgiadis and Platon Tinios,Unequal Ageing in Europe. Women’s Independence and Pensions, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, Carole Bonnet, Population, 2016. Vol. 71, n° 1, p. 169‑171. DOI 10.3917/popu.1601.0169. 


Access to the full bibliography to learn more


Update:March 2023