Publication search

Display more fields

The Demographic Masculinization of China

Collection : Ined Population Studies

2013, 198 pages

Part one: Visible Demographic Discrimination:

Chapter 1: Overview

Chapter 2: Why are there more Boys than Girls?

Chapter 3: A Geography of Discrimination.

Chapter 4: Discrimination against Girls in Early Childhood

Chapter 5: Life-Long Inequality.- Appendices: 

Chapter 6: A Phenomenon not Unique in China

Part Two: A System of Norms and Values that Favours Males​.

Chapter 7: The Status of Women in Traditional Chinese Societies

Chapter 8: Women, Feminism and Femininity

Appendix: Five Pilot Implementations of the "Care for Girls" Campaign

Chapter 9: Persistent Social and Economic Disparities

Chapter 10: Discriminatory Practices and Factors in Masculinization

Chapter 11: Familial and Socioeconomic Reasons behind Discrimination

Conclusion: What Demographic Perspectives for China and the World?


China’s higher proportion of men than women is a population characteristic that is shared by very few countries in the world. This demographic masculinity is unprecedented in the documented history of human populations, both in scale and its lasting impact on the numbers and the structure of the population. Despite the economic boom of recent years, many families in China still consider girls to be less important than boys. Although Chinese women have become largely emancipated since the 1950s, they still do not have the same opportunities for social achievement as men, and Chinese society remains fundamentally rooted in highly gendered social and family roles. As a consequence, Chinese girl babies who have the misfortune to be born instead of a long-awaited son go by various names, such as Pandi (literally "awaiting a son"), Laidi ("a son will follow"), or Yehao ("she’ll do too"). The book provides a comprehensive review of the situation of women in China’s society and shows that discrimination against girls and women is part of a system of norms and values that traditionally favours males.

Same author

On the same topic