Publication search

Display more fields

Recent Demographic Trends in France. Do Men and Women Behave Differently?
Didier Breton, Nicolas Belliot, Magali Barbieri, Justine Chaput, Hippolyte D’Albis

On 1 January 2023, the population of France was 68 million, 200,000 more than on 1 January 2022. The number of births decreased in 2022 while deaths increased. Consequently, natural increase dipped to an all-time low, contributing less to
population growth than net migration. France was among just six of the 27 European Union member countries with positive natural increase in 2022, but as net migration was quite low, its population growth was half that of the European Union as a whole. In 2021, admissions of third-country nationals requiring a residence permit were higher than in 2020, returning to the level recorded before the COVID- 19 pandemic. In 2022, the total fertility rate fell to 1.8 children per women, its lowest level in 20 years. That said, fertility should reach replacement level up to the 1992 birth cohort at least. Men have higher fertility than women, mainly because of births beyond age 50. The number of abortions increased between 2021 and 2022, and abortion rates were especially high at ages of peak fertility. The share of medical abortions and of abortions managed by a midwife continued to increase. The number of marriages increased in 2022, among different-sex couples especially, due partly to the catch-up of marriages that could not be celebrated in 2020 and 2021. The number of PACS civil unions fell, however, due to a decrease among
different-sex couples, although PACS unions between same-sex couples reached a record high. The age difference between partners fell slightly, but still persists, between male same-sex partners especially. Despite a slowing of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of deaths remained high in 2022. Two flu epidemics and three heatwaves resulted in 45,800 excess deaths. Life expectancy at birth increased in 2022 for both sexes but did not return to its pre-pandemic level. France is still among the Western European countries with the highest gender gap in life expectancy (6 years), although it has been narrowing steadily since 1980.

Children’s Residence After Parental Separation:Arrangement Diversity and Associated Factors in Quebec
Arnaud Régnier-Loilier et Amandine Baude

This article describes the diversity of children’s residence arrangements after their parents separate and examines the characteristics associated with organizing and scheduling parenting time. We draw on data from the Longitudinal Study of Separated Parents and Stepfamilies in Quebec, conducted in 2018. We bring to light a wide range of residence arrangements through a descriptive analysis of the responses of the 677 mothers and 599 fathers who filled in a 28-night calendar indicating where their children spent each night. We found that children generally move from one parent’s residence to the other’s around weekends and on Wednesdays. However, we also found contrasts by sex of the parent. Multivariate analysis revealed several factors—including parents’ income and education level, employment situation at separation, country of birth, which parent initiated the separation, context of parental relations at that time, and children’s age and sex— are associated with children’s living arrangements. Thus, despite an increase in shared residence in Quebec over the last decades, important contrasts persist in children’s post-separation living arrangements.

Time Patterns of Step-parenthood:From Time with to Time for Stepchildren
Guillemette Buisson et Marie-Clémence Le Pape

In France, the conventional statistical approach focuses on the criterion of primary residence to define the status of step-parent. In doing so, it overlooks the situation of many women who, despite not having their partner’s children in their home full-time, are nonetheless involved in their care. Drawing on data from various surveys, this article explores gender differences in this area by analysing the various profiles of stepfathers and stepmothers based on time spent in the same house as their stepchildren, as well as looking at what happens during this shared time (the division of parental tasks). We show that the time children spend in the home does not correspond to any particular social profile in stepfathers (except for alternating residence), while the social profile of stepmothers varies greatly according to the time they spend with their stepchildren. When stepchildren are daily present, stepmothers take on more of the necessary parenting tasks, while stepfathers are less involved in these. The presence of children therefore does not have the same impact for stepfathers as for stepmothers, revealing the social and gender inequalities
within stepfamilies.

Old-Age Mortality in Data-Sparse Countries:Assessing Selection Bias in Estimates Using Parental Survival Histories
A. Menashe-Oren, B. Masquelier, B.-S. Schlüter, S. Helleringer

Not enough is known about old-age mortality in countries with limited civil registration and vital statistics systems. Surveys using parental survival histories (PSH) could help bridge this gap, providing estimates on deaths over age 50. We assess the potential for sample selection biases in these mortality estimates with data from three Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Senegal, covering around 9,600 women and 8,500 men. We use Cox models to estimate variation in mortality of men and women aged 50–89 according to the number of their adult daughters (typical survey respondents). Results indicate that older adults without surviving children are associated with a higher risk of mortality. PSH-based mortality estimates might therefore be lower than the ‘true’ levels of mortality over age 50, though we found no systematic bias. PSH is thus a promising instrument for measuring mortality in old ages, with sample selection bias likely minimal.

Experience and Intensity of Telework:Links with Well-being after a Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in France
Elena Reboul, Ariane Pailhé, Emilie Counil pour l’équipe EpiCov

Implemented on a massive scale during the Covid-19 pandemic, telework is now an established form of work organization, but its effects on workers’ well-being remain a subject of debate. Drawing on data from a longitudinal survey representative of the French population (EpiCov), this article uses sequence analysis to retrace the work patterns of almost 40,000 people in paid employment and their recourse to telework during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic in France. It also uses regressions to examine the repercussions on people’s work-life balance and mental health during a period of calm in the pandemic (summer 2021) when working conditions returned almost to normal. In this context, teleworking had a strongly positive impact on the work-life balance, with beneficial effects that increased with the number of days spent working from home. The benefits were greater for women and for parents, and were independent of telework experience before the pandemic. On average, telework does not seem to have affected the risk of depression or anxiety.