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Which Degree for Which Occupation? Vertical and Horizontal Mismatch Among Immigrants, Their Children, and Grandchildren in France

Collection : Documents de travail

278, 2023

Prior research shows that immigrants are often over-educated: their educational attainment is higher than what is required or commonly observed in their occupation. Yet, less is known about the education-occupation mismatch among immigrants’ children and grandchildren (the  s second and third generations). Using the French Trajectories and Origins 2 (TeO2, 2019–2020) survey, we test theoretically-grounded hypotheses on the level of and mechanisms underlying vertical (educational attainment) and horizontal (field of study) mismatch in the first, second, and third generations. Results indicate that vertical mismatch is substantially lower in the second and third generations than in the first, giving credence to the hypothesis that vertical mismatch is largely the result of imperfect international transferability of credentials. By contrast, higher levels of horizontal mismatch persist in the second and third generations among men of non-European descent. Differences in horizontal mismatch between immigrants’ and natives’ descendants are largely accounted for by initial sorting into fields of study.

  • Rosa Weber
  • Mathieu Ferry

Mathieu Ichou


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